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Le 18 mai 2015 à 19 heures aura lieu le vernissage de l'Expo-Atelier « Au bout de nos ombres, la légende de l'amour sans fin ® », à la galerie Novera ou nous vous attendons pour voir les œuvres et écouter de la poésie et le récit du long chemin de la Méditerranée à la mer Noire, passant par l'île de Malte…

Galerie ouverte toutes les jours de 11h à 20h, du 18 au 25 mai 2015.

Expo-Atelier d’Arts, du 18 au 24 mai 2015

Galerie NOVERA: 2, rue Pierre Le Grand, 75008 PARIS, près de la Salle Pleyel

 

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5 octobre 2006 4 05 /10 /octobre /2006 09:38

Mention Spéciale du Ministère de la Culture

7ème Biennale d’Architecture de Venise

 

 Projet pour le concours international d’architecture et urbanisme pour l’aménagement du centre historique de la capitale roumaine de l’Agence d’Architecture Ghiulamila & Associés:

Alexandre Ghiulamila et Emmanuel Crivat ,

Jean-Michel Milliex (consultant),

Dino Pesic (infographie)

La synthèse des études

 

 

 

Ce projet remarquable a été apprécié surtout «pour la manière dont il aborde la vocation culturelle du centre historique de Bucarest et le raffinement de ses propositions sémantiques»

A G E N C E   D ' A R C H I T E C T U R E
G H I U L A M I L A   &     A S S O C I E S
8 ,  r u e  K e p l e r  .  75 116    P A R I S

(la suite)

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15 septembre 2006 5 15 /09 /septembre /2006 12:11

 City of Focsani

"The draft of ideas"

Which take into account the priorities of the Strategy of Urban Development of the City of Focsani and organizes them as projects which can be potentially financed by Structural European Funds, the World Bank, Funds of Regional Development and private investors.

"The Great" Focsani

The creation of an urban community in which the expenses for a sustainable development are reciprocal and the profits are fairly distributed.

Long-term contracts of public and private partnership, including the maintenance and the operation of the achieved buildings.

In this context, one must favour the creation of the Strategy of Urban Development, the balanced and sustainable development of the territory and its rational use.

At the same time, the territorial dimension is more profitable for working out plans of urban development in transportation, the improvement of the road network, the energy administration, water purification and   the recycling of waste material.

The creation of a "local loop" of communication.

The Development of the line Focsani - Galati, in relationship with that of Bucharest - Focsani.

"The Visible" Focsani

The construction of the Bucharest - Suceava highway might isolate Focsani even more. At the same time, if this vector of national and international development is profitably used, Focsani can turn into a "visible" town on a European level.

A few possible projects could change this disadvantage into an irrefutable advantage.

 

 

Driving out of the highway, a resting area accessible from the town can bring together several incipient projects included in the plan of development for 2013: a wind mill in the neighbourhood of a resting area where one can also open "the wine Market" (a priority project in the strategic plan of Focsani), as well as a centre of tourist information about the Vrancea county.

One can also present a successful example in West Europe , with a possible partnership. One can also reveal the significance of the "earthquake" which can be "staged" as an educating element.

Focsani "Welcome"

The Focsani railway station must be changed from a transit place into a "privileged destination".

A project of public and private partnership can be supported and presented with priority if it is adequately formulated.

The project must contain: the railway station, the railway network and the dwelling places situated around.

I don't have the detailed plans yet, but we can think of placing a business centre near the railway station (offices, hotels..), in the same common project, financed by public and private funds.

Examples will be given in relation to the plans we shall discuss together in Focsani.

Focsani "For All"

Within the strategy of urban development in the municipality, special attention will be given to: the refurbishment of dwelling places, the creation of parking places...

A quickly financed project can be an experimental urban operation.

Example of refurbishment operations which are frequent in Western Europe .

Focsani "Centre"

A project referring to the staging and presentation of the history of the town, with the participation of a European personality in the field of architecture and urbanism, who can give lectures on Focsani.

Organizing competitions in architecture and urbanism.

A study mission led by a European personality.

 

 

Règle du jeu (un document de DTZ France)

Investissement immobilier (GA Formation Conseil)

____________________________

Communiqué SD-MED:

Chers amis, à noter que SD-MED, après plusieurs discussions internes, a enfin choisi le titre de la Conférence SB 07MED, pré- Melbourne SB08 qui se tiendra à Athènes, les 10-11-12 Janvier 2008, sous le haut patronage de l'Ambassade de France en Grèce et qui réunira surtout les pays de l'Europe du Sud et de la Méditerranée Orientale : "La ville méditerranéenne en voie de développement durable: Qualité environnementale et Santé, durabilité dans la gestion urbaine et au marché de l'immobilier " Il y aura, par conséquent, cher Emmanuel, du moins un quart des débats, consacré a l'ImmoDurabilité....à vous de contribuer à la structuration de cette partie de l'évènement!

 

 

 

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13 septembre 2006 3 13 /09 /septembre /2006 16:56
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22 juillet 2006 6 22 /07 /juillet /2006 21:24

Série: Façades de Bibliothèques

N° 1: Photo: Emmanuel CRIVAT, 9 août 2006

Dans la troisième semaine du mois d'août 2006, Emmanuel CRIVAT se rendra à Prague sur le site de la future Bibliothèque Nationale de la République tchèque; un projet dans l'esprit de l'immodurabilité en perspective.

National Library of the Czech Republic , Klementinum 190, 110 01 Praha 1, Staré Mesto

The largest undeveloped area in Prague shows in its development a fascinating reflection of the transformations of the territory that thanks to its sharp terrain edge above the river competes with the most important territory units in Prague - Prague Castle, Vyehrad and Vítkov. It is so distinct in the Prague skyline that already in the days that in no way can be characterised with any extreme romanticism and respect for beauties of nature, i.e. short after 1900, the natural character of its slopes constituted an obstacle for the "fatal" decision concerning the construction of a road from the city towards the north. Tenders of this type, where the road "Parízská - Svatopluka Cecha bridge - north" is solved, do not appear after 1918. The idea of a tunnel had not been abandoned but it was moved further away from the historic centre. Contemplations to break through in this part might seem to be unrealistic and utopian if finished drawings showing this version were not preserved.

The territory itself is called Letenská Plain; philologically it is a name with certain "poetic" content - from the geographic point of view the place could also be called flatland, plateau, tableland etc.

A name that is not limited strictly only to geographic or orographic understanding makes us contemplate whether even in this case "the town did no feel" an analogy for example to the territory behind the town walls in Paris (compare Paris et sa banlieue, Michelin Paris 1972, p. 54 : ..il n'y a que champs et marais... En 1667, Le Nôtre prolonge la perspective des Tuileries; toute la plaine, appelée Grand Cours, est plantée de rangées d'arbres. Ces calmes ombrages prennent, en 1709, le nom de Champs-Élysées). Like in Paris, the spectacular town planning axis in Munich (Ludwigstraße) and in Berlin is also completed with a triumphal arc. These parallels with certain spiritual content - Elysian Fields, or content marking military victories in modern European towns (in connection to strong ancient Greek and Roman traditions), are naturally only meant at totally general level. Prague's Letná, with its history of military exercises, could rather be compared to Parisian "Champs-de-Mars" or to Munich's Maxmilian Platz around the year 1800 and later to the territory to the north of it, which was not developed with regard to military exercises and parades until the time of construction of contemporary Pinakothek der Moderne (2004). Prague also had large exercising ground in today's Karlín, where also the "Parisian" Invalidovna was established in the 18th century. Why this territory was later "devaluated as regards its content" is already outside the scope of this contemplation.

I dare to make these vague comparisons because the contemporary town-planning thinking has receded due to the cold-headed financial calculations (price per square meter of the land) from the ideas that were at the basis of the most important town-planning principles of pre-consumption Europe . Unfortunately to emphasise certain idea importance of the place we paradoxically get most of the arguments from the recent period - construction of the biggest statue of Stalin and existence of military parades, which as we known, for example in Paris are held on the Elysian Fields. Anyway, "the prestige of a place" is a term that is difficult to prove by means of exact argumentation.

 

Whereas the construction of the state gallery at the western edge of the plain was probably prevented mainly by the oncoming war (the building permission was issued on November 25, 1937), then we can assume that filling of the huge area totally with government buildings, buildings of central offices, buildings for schools and for residential purposes was probably prevented by certain timidity when facing such an imposing territory. Both the huge sports stadium and the cubist halls of residence, that were once standing on the plain, were constructions of completely "reversible" character. During the first republic thus this territory was only defined on its eastern edge by the Ministry of Interior and both museums. These are constructions that can be labelled as "ostentatiously monumental" although their placing in front of the natural "border" constructions of Holesovice was a certain sight devaluation of the older development (e.g. Fialka's neo-renaissance water station from 1888 hidden behind Havlícek's "juggernaut building", from which only its beautiful arcade gallery "sticks out").

The last methodical comment concerns the change of Letná formation as regards its context.

Whereas until the first half of the 19th century it was a territory right behind the fortification wall (extra muros) and like in other Baroque fortresses it was necessary to keep this area free, "unutilised", the situation changed radically at the moment when the plain started to be surrounded with continuous development of new Prague quarters (Holesovice from the 1880s, somewhat later Bubenec and Dejvice). Letná was not a periphery any more and it became a free area inside the city. Town gardens are often called poetically as the "lungs of the town" - however, Letná due to its large area helped to give Prague a "dimension" of a city that Prague was gradually turning to.

History of the place and brief history of construction activities.

The analysis of Letná as a place of construction activity is not intended as exact description and assessment of the individual buildings from the point of view of history of architecture and as regards tenders as an analysis of the performance of the individual authors and "analogical" assessment of the work of commissions of that time - it is rather intended as an outline of ideas that this territory aroused in various generations of architects and investors.

Until the second half of the 17th century, the only construction activities can be seen in the belt of Baroque fortification walls with bastions constructed near the edge of the Letná slope. Around the year 1715, inside one of the bastions, on the axis of today's Revolucní trída avenue, Count Valdstejn had a single-storey manor built with an attic semi-storey and with characteristic terraced material formation.

This territory probably belonged to the Valdstejn family already from the times of Albrecht from Valdstejn about whose construction activities in the area of Buben court we are informed. However, the appearance of the folly and its name "Belvedere" we only know from a period engraving - probably it was not fully destroyed by the French army in 1743 (because it is drawn in later plans of Prague) but its structural condition perhaps was not so good to be able to be used without problems during the construction of another building in roughly the same place - i.e. Ullmann's neo-renaissance manor from the year 1863.

Little Castle / Ignác Ullmann, 1863

 

It is interesting that the construction following chronologically - Hanavský pavilion from the Jubilee Exhibition, which was transferred here in 1898, due to its roof formation (and thus also its silhouette that was with regard to the prevailing views from the south of the city the most important architectonic feature) resembles the baroque manor Belvedere.

In the years 1908 - 1911, on the western edge of Letná Bedrich Ohmann built a manor house for Karel Kramár - nowadays the residence of the Prime Minister of the Czech Republic that again dominates the very edge of Letenská Plain towards the city centre.

Kramár's manor house / Bedrich Ohmann, 1911

In the meantime the wooden sports stadium oriented perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of Letná was probably built.¨ The halls of residence built in cubist style by architect Vanecek in 1922 on the western edge of Letná should have been a makeshift for several years but they were used until 1960s.

Prague, Letná / Vanecek, 1922

In the 20th century there were several tenders concerning the territory of Letná . In 1908 it was a ender for communication interconnection of the Parízská trída avenue under construction over the Svatopluka Cecha bridge to the northern parts of Prague . To put it in a simplified way - the intention was to build either a cutting or a tunnel that would get the traffic up to Letná. The tenders thus concerned rather the southern slope of Letná than Letná "en gros". However, these projects already suggested possible development on the plain along the road, or better to say at the place where it comes to Letná.

There were more tenders in the 1920s and they were focused on the need of the new republic to gain appropriate buildings for ministries and central offices. As an example of certain functionalist harmonisation of the area can be seen in Krejcar's design from 1928 with twelve identical buildings from which the easternmost one was built later as the Ministry of Interior. However, also Janák's design from 1929 can be seen along similar lines. Janák's studies were always based on the emphasis of the importance of a generous solution of roads, as it is mentioned in his theoretical work - his design resembles, especially in its western part, a monumentally solved crossroad of boulevards rather than quiet residential blocks.

The last important event was a preparation of the construction of the Czechoslovak State Gallery with the entrance from Badeniho Street in the 1930s - the Gocár's design would probably reach as far as nowadays turn point of trams and buses, as the actual building block of the gallery had dimensions of more than 100 x 100 m. We also have to include the forefront of approximately the same size as the built-up area (figure 28) and later also the mass of so-called Masaryk's Institute was added to it, that was, however, solved at the expense of this forefront, which damaged significantly the "monumentality of the design". An interesting solution is included in Gocár's design towards Letenská Plain - a monumental colonnade with slim pillars was probably intended to perform certain optical interconnection with the huge "empty area" of Letná.

State Gallery, Masaryk's Institute / Gocár, 1933

Letná or Leten was mentioned as early as in the 11th century. In 1261 there was a coronation ceremony of Premysl Otakar II and in 1420 it was a camp of Zikmund's army before the defeat at Vítkov hill. The gardens on Letná were planted in 1858, when Letná and its slopes were bought by Prague Community, and later it was adjusted by F. Thomayer around the year 1890. The large area, later called Letenská Plain, stretched from the hilltop above the Vltava river northward towards the road leading from Buben village to Strahovská brána (today's Milady Horákové avenue). It was a military exercising ground until the late 1880s when playgrounds, gymnastic and sports grounds started to be established here.

At the turn of the century, in connection with demolition of former Jewish Ghetto between the Old Town and the Vltava river and the construction of a new quarter in its place, an idea appeared to connect Letenská Plain downwards to Prague by means of a cutting (architect Jan Koula) or a tunnel (architect Richard Klenka from Vlastimil).

 

In 1920 a Prague planning committee was established and tenders were announced basically concerning town planning of Prague . From designs for Letná which were supposed to solve government buildings and where the problem with Letná cutting or road appeared again, nothing was implemented.

Czech town planning started to develop with the formation of Greater Prague. Its construction and redevelopment in the new scale was supposed to be harmonised by means of so-called regulation plans.

In the years 1936-1938 an extensive wall of uniformly solved residential apartment buildings in accordance with the design by Josef Havlícek was built at the eastern part of Letenská Plain along Milady Horákové avenue and in the same time at the edge of the plain along Nad stolou street a complex of buildings of the Ministry of Interior was built by Kamil Roskot (in cooperation with Jaromír Krejcar and Jan Zázvorka). Not far from the south-east edge of Letenská Plain a symmetric composition of Agricultural Museum and National Technical Museum was finally built in the years 1938 to 1941 in accordance with the design by Milan Babuska. It was the beginning of the development of Letenská Plain from the east, which did not have a bad architectonic outcome but it significantly complicated the construction of Letenský tunnel after the World War II.

 

The construction of National Gallery was discussed for twenty years (Gocár's design of the construction at the western edge of Letná has never been implemented).

Ivan P. Muchka 10/2005


Photo Bogdan CRIVAT (29/07/2006)

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13 juin 2006 2 13 /06 /juin /2006 18:18

Terminus: FOCSANI ….or ADJUD

On the 18-th of May 2006 I’ll be in Focsani, and this time Focsani is my TERMINUS.

I shall be in Focsani for over a week, leaving behind my usual activities  and the article I am now writing on London’s “urbanization”; I’m not thinking any more either of my voyage to China, or of the great project planned in Lyon (the Gallic capital, Lugdunum), or of the fabulous water pump at Marly which activates the artesian wells of Louis XIV, and which I want to make spring out again in “five years’time” (a five years’ plan [!] as we used to say before…)

On the 18-th of May I’ll make a halt in Focsani, coming by car from Bucharest…; this time I’ll stay in Focsani because I am convinced that in seven years I’ll also stop in Focsani, since it is not possible to drive to Suceava without stopping in Focsani, and especially because Focsani will become a destination. I shall come to Romania in order to go to Focsani; I shall land directly on the Focsani airport, I shall take a taxi in order to be in time for the Gala of the Ciprian Porumbescu Festival in the Great Hall of the First Union, where Angela Gheorghiu will be waiting for the curtain rise.

It is not yet the 18-th of May, I am still in Paris, and I can see through the window the place where, under the Paris Olympic Sign (which was supposed to convince the world that the 2012 Olympic Games would take place in Paris ), I had a talk with a proficient Romanian journalist. The Olympic sign is no longer there, 50 hectares are being prepared for urban transformation, almost in the middle of Paris…and I am thinking…what if we urbanize 50 hectares of land in Focsani and Adjud.

I have three more days to finish my luggage…if I could only squeeze in the 50 hectares from Paris !... WHY NOT??!

Emmanuel CRIVAT, Paris,10 May 2006 

 

Terminus: FOCSANI... sau ADJUD

Pe 18 mai 2006 sunt la Focsani , de data asta Focsani este TERMINUS.

Mà opresc la Focsani pentru mai mult de o sàptàmâna, lasând deoparte activitatile mele pariziene (de la Paris )  si articolul pe care îl scriu despre „urbanizarea” Londrei; nu mà mai gândesc la deplasarea in China, nici la marele proiect pentru Lyon (capitala galilor, Lugdunum), nici la fabuloasa pompà de apà de la Marly , care anima fântânile arteziene ale lui Ludovic al XIV-lea pe care vreau sa le fac sa tâsneasca din nou, de aici in „cinci ani” (un cincinal (!) cum gândeam pe vremuri)...

Pe 18 mai ma opresc la Focsani , venind cu masina de la Bucuresti... si daca ma opresc la Focsani este pentru cà sunt convins cà de aici in 7 ani ma voi opri la Focsani , pentru cà nu-i posibil sa treci spre Suceava fara sa te opresti la Focsani si mai ales pentru ca Focsani va deveni o destinatie ... voi veni in România pentru a ma duce la Focsani ... voi ateriza  direct pe aeroportul de la Focsani , voi lua un taxi  sà ajung la timp la  spectacolul de gala al Festivalului Ciprian Porumbescu, in Marea Sala a Primei Uniri, unde Angela Gheorghiu asteaptà ridicarea cortinei.

Nu suntem înca pe 18 mai, sunt la Paris si pe geam vad locul in care am discutat (la soare) sub Reperul Olimpic Parizian (semnul care trebuia sà convingà lumea cà Jocurile Olimpice din 2012 vor fi la Paris )  cu o bunà jurnalistà din România... reperul olimpic nu mai este, 50 de hectare se pregàtesc sa se transforme in ORAS... aproape în mijlocul Parisului... si mà gândesc... dacà am transforma 50 de hectare în ORAS la Focsani si Adjud.

Mai am trei zile sà-mi pregàtesc bagajul... dacà as putea pune în el 50 de hectare de la Paris ! ...si de ce nu?!?

Emmanuel CRIVAT

Paris, 10 mai 2006

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12 mai 2006 5 12 /05 /mai /2006 22:05

CONCOURS INTERNATIONAL D’ARCHITECTURE ET URBANISME BUCAREST (ROUMANIE) 1997... 2006

Concours international d’architecture et urbanisme pour l’aménagement du centre historique de la capitale roumaine: «La Place de la Révolution - Bucarest». Ce lieu hautement symbolique a été baptisé ainsi après les événements de décembre 1989 qui ont mené à la chute du régime communiste. Elle est située entre l’ancien Palais Royal (le Musée National d’Art), l’Athénée Roumain construit par l’architecte français Albert Galleron en 1888, les bâtiments des Fondations Culturelles Royales Carol I ( la Bibliothèque Centrale Universitaire ), construits en partie par un autre architecte français, Paul Gottereau entre 1891-1895 simultanément à l’extension du Palais Royal, l’hôtel Athénée Palace (repris aujourd’hui et restauré par Hilton) et la place de l’ancien Théâtre National, sur la voie la plus célèbre de Bucarest, «Calea Victoriei».

Sur les 47 projets rendus, Franz et Marina Echeriu, architectes à Innsbruck (Autriche) ont obtenu le premier prix, P. Ciuta et V. Simion, architectes à Hanau (Allemagne) le deuxième prix, D. Marin et Z. Bogdanescu architectes à Bucarest (Roumanie) le troisième prix et Dorin Stefan - Bureau d’Architecture à Bucarest (Roumanie) le quatrième prix. Ont été accordées deux mentions à l’Agence «Archi-Tecture» de Paris, et à l’Agence «Westfourth Architecture» de Bucarest-New-York.

 

A cette liste, le jury présidé par l’architecte suisse Pierre von Meiss, professeur à l’Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, a ajouté une distinction particulière, en accord avec le ministre roumain de la culture Ion Caramitru, membre du jury. Cette distinction est due à une équipe basée à Paris: l’Agence d’Architecture Ghiulamila & Associés : Alexandre Ghiulamila et Emmanuel Crivat, Jean-Michel Milliex (consultant), Dino Pesic (infographie), sous la forme d’une
"Mention Spéciale du Ministère de la Culture
"

 

«Ce projet remarquable» a été apprécié surtout «pour la manière dont il aborde la vocation culturelle du centre historique de Bucarest et le raffinement de ses propositions sémantiques» (cf. A. Beldiman, président de l’Union des Architectes de Roumanie). Le projet englobe l’extension du Musée National d’Art de Roumanie (5.800m²), l’extension de la célèbre salle de concerts de Bucarest, l’Athénée Roumain (5.200m²) par la création d’un Institut de Recherches Acoustique - Musique sur le modèle de l’I.R.C.A.M. de Paris, l’extension de la Bibliothèque Centrale Universitaire (1.400m²), la création d’un Espace Spectacle (3.500m² de salles de cinéma et de théâtre ) et intègre les réalisations d’ordre culturel dans un ensemble comprenant magasins (9.000m²), commerces (3.500m²) et bureaux (16.400m²), autour d’un espace commun aménagé sur 2.600m². Sur le plan de la circulation, la place, dessinée d’un seul trait, mais fractionnée dans une volumétrie de plans inclinés, esplanades et passerelles, est rendue aux piétons sur une longueur de plus de 400m, tandis que la circulation automobile enterrée donne accès à un ensemble de parkings de 770 places sur 2 niveaux ou 1.120 places sur 3 niveaux.

Une exposition a réuni les projets lauréats, au Théâtre National de Bucarest.

 

Un projet qui revient...des nouvelles dans une semaine.

Articol din Revista ARHITECTURA nr. 1-2 / 1998...

Macheta proiectului în Pavilionul României de la BIENALA de la VENETIA în 2000

le 25 août 1997

BUCAREST (ROUMANIE)

Concours international d’idées pour l’aménagement du centre historique de la capitale roumaine:
«La Place de la Révolution - Bucarest».
Ce lieu hautement symbolique a été baptisé ainsi après les événements de décembre 1989 qui ont mené à la chute du régime communiste (place où le journaliste français J.L. Calderon a laissé sa vie). Elle est située entre l’ancien Palais Royal (le Musée National d’Art), l’Athénée Roumain construit par l’architecte français Albert Galleron en 1888, les bâtiments des Fondations Culturelles Royales Carol I (la Bibliothèque Centrale Universitaire), construits en partie par un autre architecte français, Paul Gottereau entre 1891-1895 simultanément à l’extension du Palais Royal, l’hôtel Athénée Palace (repris aujourd’hui et restauré par Hilton) et la place de l’ancien Théâtre National, sur la voie la plus célèbre de Bucarest, «Calea Victoriei».

Le jury présidé par l’architecte suisse Pierre von Meiss, professeur à l’Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, jury auquel participait aussi le ministre roumain de la culture Ion Caramitru , a décerné la Mention Spéciale du Ministère de la Culture à l’Agence d’Architecture Ghiulamila & Associés : Alexandre Ghiulamila et Emmanuel Crivat , Jean-Michel Milliex (consultant), Dino Pesic (infographie), architectes à Paris.

Ce projet remarquable a été apprécié surtout « pour la manière dont il aborde la vocation culturelle du centre historique de Bucarest et le raffinement de ses propositions sémantiques » (cf. A. Beldiman, président de l’Union des Architectes de Roumanie). Le projet englobe l’extension du Musée National d’Art de Roumanie (5.800m²), l’extension de la célèbre salle de concert de Bucarest, l’Athénée Roumain (5.200m²) par la création d’un Institut de Recherches Acoustique - Musique sur le modèle de l’I.R.C.A.M. de Paris, l’extension de la Bibliothèque Centrale Universitaire (1.400m²), la création d’un Espace Spectacle (3.500m² de salles de cinéma et de théâtre ) et intègre les réalisations d’ordre culturel dans un ensemble comprenant magasins (9.000m²), commerces (3.500m²) et bureaux (16.400m²), autour d’un espace commun aménagé sur 2.600m². Sur le plan de la circulation, la place, dessinée d’un seul trait, mais fractionnée dans une volumétrie de plans inclinés, esplanades et passerelles, est rendue aux piétons sur une longueur de plus de 400m, tandis que la circulation automobile enterrée donne accès à un ensemble de parkings de 770 places sur 2 niveaux ou 1.120 places sur 3 niveaux.

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